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|Language of final thesis:||Czech|
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|Title of the thesis:||Interaction of 2,4-D and Ethylene in the Growth of Tobacco BY-2 Suspension|
|Summary:||Studying plant cell materials provides a vast range of theoretical as well as practical information. Cells of BY-2 suspension culture are employed as a model system to investigate the function of fytohormones in plant cells and to study stress, cell differentiation, apoptosis, secondary metabolism processes, enzyme induction and gene expression in plants. The literature reports that the main advantage of BY-2 cells lies in a fast growth of the cell suspension. 2,4-D is a synthetic compound that is -- in higher concentrations -- used as a herbicide. It fundamentally modifies the amount of native growth regulators and substantially influences the plant metabolism. The physiological effect of a lower 2,4-D concentration is used to induce a dedifferentiation in vitro. Production of cell suspensions results from the dedifferentiation processes. This property is also employed to maintain the BY-2 cell suspension. Ethylene is known as a signal molecule mediating the reaction of a plant to stress conditions. A synergic effect of auxines on the ethylene production was reported in the literature.Auxines stimulate the production of ethylene in cell tissues. Higher concentration of ethylene subsequently inhibits the production of auxines. Ethylene is therefore commonly presented as a compound with antagonistic effects on all types of fytohormones. Tobacco BY-2 suspension was used to study the relationships between 2,4-D, ACC and ethylene. The monitoring of BY-2 generation time for four distinct concentrations of 2,4-D revealed differences in the production of ACC and ethylen depending on the amount of 2,4-D in the cultivation medium. It also became apparent during the generation time that cells produced other substances, probably pectines, which are known to protect cells against stressor activity.It can be concluded based on the morphology of cells in experiment that even low 1 micromolar concentrations of 2,4-D can act as a stressor. Pectin properties -- their natural ability to produce gels were supported by the composition of medium. Cells without "pectin shield" were dead at the end of the generating time.|
|Key words:||viability, 2,4-dichlorfenoxyacetic acid, BY-2 cell suspension, 2,4-D, 1-aminocyklopropan-1-karboxylic acid, programmed cell death, PCD, AL-PCD, apoptosis, pectines, mutagenicity, pectin shield, ACC, ethylene|
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