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|Jazyk spracovania záverečnej práce:||Čeština|
Časti práce s odloženým zverejnením:
|Názov práce:||Migrační a adaptační rostlinné bioindikátory ve vztahu k lidské činnosti v krajině|
|Abstrakt:||A selected model locality within the studied foothills of the Orlické hory Mts. -- cadastres of the village of Těchonín -- was during last 400 years heavily affected by changes in the way of landscape use. Mainly its structure, cover and species composition were changed. The aim of the paper was to evaluate effects of the development and methods of management on the present condition of vegetation. Research was particularly aimed at changes in species composition ("influx" of plant bioindicators) on agricultural land used in the form of permanent grasslands. In regard of historical developmnent, the present state of landscape can be termed to be relatively favourable. It has been found that in the course of roughly 15 years, when the method of agriculture in the landscape markedly differed from large-area intensive management, significant changes in species diversity (increment of the number of plant species in grasslands) occurred. Especially extensive cattle grazing and particularly sheep grazing insure provident form of permanent grassland maintanance and provide for incerasing of species diversity, what we can consider to be high valued. In the top parts of the Orlické hory Mts., a fundamental change in the spatial and species composition of stands occurred when during air-pollution/ecological disaster particularly spruce began to die on a massive scale in the 80s of the 20th century. After large-area felling, present stands were replaced by plantings of more resistant species (mainly mountain pine -- 126 ha) coming from various provenances. The aim of the paper was to find whether mountain pine (Pinus mugo TURRA), due to its existence, growth and development, can prevent the return of species-more suitable mountain forest. Therefore, not only the problem of the autochthonous character of mountain pine in the Orlické hory Mts. was investigated within the project but also properties of mountain pine, strategy of its growth and effects on the environment were studied both in the Orlické hory Mts. and at localities with the long-term or natural occurrence of Pinus mugo (the Krkonoše Mts., the Sowie gory Mts. in Poland and Topielisko and Czarne Bagno peatlands in the Bystřické hory Mts. in Poland). On the basis of mentioned researches it is possible to conclude that mountain pine in the devastated summit parts of the Orlické hory Mts have their substantiation. Under abiotic conditions, which allow a suitable growth and canopy structure, the mountain pine stands can fulfil the function of the temperature treatment of the harsh mountain climate in ground layers of air being good protection for germinating plants, self-seeding and newly planted tree species. Thanks to the protective function of mountain pine, these species thrive better than those on the open area. As a heliophilous shrub, mountain pine can be gradually shaded by others species and spontaneously suppressed. It resulted that migration of plant species is visible in both studied localities - in the foothills or in the top parts of the Orlické hory Mts. In the foothills, it is possible to consider few of species to be bioindicators of restoration of nature nearer conditions, respectively in relativelly short time of roughly 15 years. On the other hand, the different situation is in the localities of the top parts. After expiring of air-pollution/ecological disaster (in roughly the same time), migration of plant species indicates still persisting impaired environment.|
|Kľúčové slová:||Pinus mugo Turra, migrace, adaptace|
|–||Záverečná práca (prílohy záverečnej práce) neobmedzene|
|–||Posudky záverečnej práce neobmedzene|
|–||Zadanie práce neobmedzene|