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|Jazyk spracovania záverečnej práce:||Angličtina|
Zobrazenie a sťahovanie súborov
|Názov práce:||Systems of forest certification in the Czech Republic and Polad – their comparison and evaluation of their impact on forest management|
|Abstrakt:||Summary The aim of this thesis was to compare forest certification processes applied in Poland and Czech Republic with special focus on its influence on forest management. Forest certification was mainly analysed in the example of two university forest enterprises: Experimental Forest Enterprise in Krynica and Training Forest Enterprise Masaryk Forest Křtiny. The most known and widespread certification programs include the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and the Program of Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC). FSC was emerged in 1993, its vision of sustainable forest management is described in 10 international principles, which are the base to create national standards in particular attending countries. It offers individual and group forest management certification:, as well as Chain-of-Custody certification. As on April 2012, total area of certified forest in the world reaches 147,1 million hectares, most of them are located in developed part of the world, developing countries contribute to 17% of world's certified forests. Total number of Chain of Custody certificates reaches 22.788, most of them held by companies from Europe, North America and Asia. The Program of Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC) was created in 1999 by the European forest products industry as an alternative to the FSC. The principles of sustainable forest management of PEFC are based on resolutions Ministerial Conferences of 1993 and 1998 on the Protection of Forests in Europe. The PEFC system works under main four principles and national programs which are in compliance to these principles are endorsed to PEFC. PEFC offers single, group and regional forest certification, as well as Chain-of- Custody certification. As for March 2012 certified area under PEFC reached about 243.1 million hectares, most of certified forests are located in developed world. Comparing forest statistics, analysed countries differs by the forest area (much larger in Poland) and percentage of forest cover (higher in the Czech Republic). In both countries, public forest ownership is prevailing. The forest legislation is in some extend unified in both countries and assessed as quite strict. Forest Acts and other laws predetermine forest management. In the legislation in both countries, principle of sustainability of forest management is included. Forest certification in both Poland and Czech Republic is a common and widespread process, but mostly done in state-owned forests. In the Czech Republic the PEFC program prevails, certifying all state forest and some private forest entities in the frames of one common certificate. FSC certification in the Czech Republic is quite rare. Oppositely, in Poland almost all state forests enterprises are certified under FSC scheme, but PEFC program is adapted continuously. The effect of forest certification in both countries seems to be not well known, together from economical, natural and societal points of view. Its influence varies according to used standard and local conditions, because forests everywhere are managed in some extend differently. The reasons to join the forest certification are various, including the need to conform the high quality of forestry, especially under state ownership and to gain prestige. Forest certification was also forced by wood suppliers and wood products manufacturers. The importance of forest certification depends on diverse factors, particularly a type of the certification scheme used, applied standard, but mostly on country's forest legislation, which predetermines all forestry practises in analysed countries. In analysed examples of two university forest enterprises, forest certification did not exhibit too hard influence on forest management. The limitations are connected mostly with the usage of pesticides for forest stands or forest nursery protection, the need to improve the mechanism of control of health and safety conditions for forest workers. And limitations of maximum area of clearcuts applied for forest harvesting. According to the interview, forest certification is not considered as too beneficial. Any additional sale or price-plus profit were not find. Possible benefit could be the more stable position in the market. Another observed benefit is so called "permanent control mechanism", which helps foresters in self-discipline, to do continuous reporting and register any kind of activity made in forest and forestry. In the conditions of Poland and the Czech Republic, the certification touches forest management in much less extent that it could be predicted. Most limitations of forest management are connected with country's legislation, which predetermines forestry activities.|
|Kľúčové slová:||forest management, Program of Endorsement of Forest Certification, sustainable forest management, forest certification, Forest Stewardship Council|
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